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Gold

goldZum Golde drängt, am Golde hängt doch alles.
For gold contend, On gold depend All things.

J. W. Goethe, Faust I

The element gold has many personalities, of which the image of a noble but soft, yellow metal would first across one's mind. The recently discovered nanoparticles and nanowires containing gold are a natural extension of this aspect, as are the uses of gold in electronics and decoration. Thought to be noble, gold actually has a rich chemistry. Fascinating in its complexity for academic chemists, this chemistry has potential applications in materials science, medicine and, recently, in both heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis. Some fresh promises are related to the optical properties of certain gold compounds or to the possibility of forming new nanostructures based on gold. The unique properties of gold are strongly influenced by relativistic effects.

[1] P. Pyykkö, Theoretical Chemistry of Gold
Angew. Chem. 2004, 116, 4512–4557; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43, 4412–4456

[2] A. S. K. Hashmi, The Catalysis Gold Rush: New Claims
Angew. Chem. 2005, 117, 7150; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 6990

[3] G. Schmid, B. Corain, Nanoparticulated Gold: Syntheses, Structures, Electronics, and Reactivities
Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 2003, 3081

Recent Articles

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Partial Reduction and Selective Transfer of Hydrogen Chloride on Catalytic Gold Nanoparticles

Partial Reduction and Selective Transfer of Hydrogen Chloride on Catalytic Gold Nanoparticles

A helping hand from gold: Hydrogen chloride is partially reduced by supported gold nanoparticles at room temperature. It is catalytically added to alkynes to give, regio- and stereoselectively, E-α-vinyl chlorides, including the synthesis of vinyl chloride monomer from acetylene in continuous mode.

[Communication]
Judit Oliver-Meseguer, Antonio Doménech-Carbó, Mercedes Boronat, Antonio Leyva-Pérez, Avelino Corma
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., April 28, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201700282 Read article

Anionic Derivatives of Perfluorinated Trimethylgold

Anionic Derivatives of Perfluorinated Trimethylgold

Green around the edges: Perfluorinated trimethylgold (CF3)3Au (see figure) shows much higher stereochemical stability than its non-fluorinated (CH3)3Au counterpart and is much more reluctant to reductive elimination. Its fundamental properties were analyzed using a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Its anionic complexes with the whole family of halide ligands, including fluoride, [(CF3)3AuF], were isolated and their properties were studied.

[Full Paper]
Alberto Pérez-Bitrián, Sonia Martínez-Salvador, Miguel Baya, José M. Casas, Antonio Martín, Babil Menjón, Jesús Orduna
Chem. Eur. J., April 24, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.201700927 Read article

Biocompatible Cup-Shaped Nanocrystal with Ultrahigh Photothermal Efficiency as Tumor Therapeutic Agent

Biocompatible Cup‐Shaped Nanocrystal with Ultrahigh Photothermal Efficiency as Tumor Therapeutic Agent

Multifunctional Au nanocups (NCs) are fabricated for the targeted computed tomographic and photoacoustic imaging of cancerous tumors and phototherapy. Au NCs show inherent photothermal and activatable photosensitizer properties under laser irradiation, with a photothermal conversion efficiency of 38.5%. The developed Au NC nanostructures hold great promise for clinical cancer diagnosis and therapy.

[Full Paper]
Fengli Gao, Maozhong Sun, Liguang Xu, Liqiang Liu, Hua Kuang, Chuanlai Xu
Adv. Funct. Mater., April 21, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201700605 Read article

Cover Picture: Direct Electron Transfer of Cellobiose Dehydrogenase on Positively Charged Polyethyleneimine Gold Nanoparticles (ChemPlusChem 4/2017)

Cover Picture: Direct Electron Transfer of Cellobiose Dehydrogenase on Positively Charged Polyethyleneimine Gold Nanoparticles (ChemPlusChem 4/2017)

The cover picture shows a biosensor for measuring lactose in dairy products. It consists of a gold electrode and a layer of polyethyleneimine-capped gold nanoparticles. The enzyme cellobiose dehydrogenase is immobilized onto the layer of PEI-modified AuNPs. Lactose is oxidized to lactobionic acid at the catalytic domain and electrons are transferred by the enzyme′s cytochrome domain to the PEI-modified AuNPs. Details are given in the Full Paper by L. Gorton and co-workers on page 546 in Issue 4, 2017 (DOI: 10.1002/cplu.201600453).

[Cover Picture]
Mojtaba Tavahodi, Roberto Ortiz, Christopher Schulz, Ali Ekhtiari, Roland Ludwig, Behzad Haghighi, Lo Gorton
ChemPlusChem, April 20, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/cplu.201700108 Read article

Efficient Aerobic Oxidation of Glucose to Gluconic Acid over Activated Carbon-Supported Gold Clusters

Efficient Aerobic Oxidation of Glucose to Gluconic Acid over Activated Carbon‐Supported Gold Clusters

Solid gold: The catalytic performance of the atomically precise gold cluster-Au38(PET)24 (PET=2-phenylethanethiolate), immobilized on activated carbon, is investigated for the aerobic oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid. The turnover frequency for the Au38/AC-120 (AC=activated carbon) catalyst is 5440 h−1, which is higher than for Pd/AC, Pd-Bi/AC, and Au/AC.

[Full Paper]
Chao Liu, Junying Zhang, Jiahui Huang, Chaolei Zhang, Feng Hong, Yang Zhou, Gao Li, Masatake Haruta
ChemSusChem, April 11, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/cssc.201700407 Read article

Hollow Nanostars with Photothermal Gold Caps and Their Controlled Surface Functionalization for Complementary Therapies

Hollow Nanostars with Photothermal Gold Caps and Their Controlled Surface Functionalization for Complementary Therapies

Nanohybrids of hollow nanostars with encapsulated gold caps with unique photothermal characteristic are readily synthesized for complementary photothermal therapy, gene therapy, and chemotherapy.

[Full Paper]
Ranran Wang, Nana Zhao, Fu-Jian Xu
Adv. Funct. Mater., April 10, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201700256 Read article

Selective Oxidation of Activated Alcohols by Supported Gold Nanoparticles under an Atmospheric Pressure of O2: Batch and Continuous-Flow Studies

Selective Oxidation of Activated Alcohols by Supported Gold Nanoparticles under an Atmospheric Pressure of O2: Batch and Continuous‐Flow Studies

Continuously higher yields: Commercially available Au nanoparticles (NPs) supported on alumina were used to selectively oxidize a large range of activated alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds in good yields (43–99 %). The true heterogeneous nature of the catalysis by gold was demonstrated, and the protocol adapted to continuous-flow reactors, in which higher yields were obtained (84–99 %).

[Full Paper]
Pascal D. Giorgi, Nelli Elizarov, Sylvain Antoniotti
ChemCatChem, April 05, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/cctc.201700179 Read article

Detection of Therapeutic Levels of Ionizing Radiation Using Plasmonic Nanosensor Gels

Detection of Therapeutic Levels of Ionizing Radiation Using Plasmonic Nanosensor Gels

A colorimetric plasmonic nanosensor gel has been developed for the detection of ionizing radiation at doses used in clinical radiotherapy. Radiation doses are quantitatively determined using the intensity of the gel color, rendered by the formation of gold nanoparticles. This study demonstrates the translational potential of plasmonic gel nanosensors due to their ease of fabrication and simplicity of colorimetric detection.

[Full Paper]
Karthik Pushpavanam, Sahil Inamdar, John Chang, Tomasz Bista, Stephen Sapareto, Kaushal Rege
Adv. Funct. Mater., April 04, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201606724 Read article

An Electrochemical Sensor Based on Gold nanoparticles Incorporated in Mesoporous MFI Zeolite for Determination of Purine Bases in DNA

An Electrochemical Sensor Based on Gold nanoparticles Incorporated in Mesoporous MFI Zeolite for Determination of Purine Bases in DNA

[Full Paper]
Huixian Song, Shijie Huo, Junping Dong, Jiaqiang Xu
Electroanalysis, April 03, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/elan.201600812 Read article

Controlled Growth of Gold Nanostars: Effect of Spike Length on SERS Signal Enhancement

Controlled Growth of Gold Nanostars: Effect of Spike Length on SERS Signal Enhancement

Anchoring stars to surfaces: By varying the temperature, it is possible to control the growth, size, and length of the spikes on gold nanostars during preparation. The effects of these nanostars on SERS signals are investigated by using glutathione and crystal violet as analytes. Shorter spikes lead to greater SERS signal enhancement than the longer spikes.

[Article]
S. V. Sheen Mers, S. Umadevi, V. Ganesh
ChemPhysChem, April 03, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/cphc.201601380 Read article

Selective Pd Deposition on Au Nanobipyramids and Pd Site-Dependent Plasmonic Photocatalytic Activity

Selective Pd Deposition on Au Nanobipyramids and Pd Site‐Dependent Plasmonic Photocatalytic Activity

Anisotropic bimetallic gold/palladium nanostructures are synthesized by first site-selectively coating silica either at the ends or side surface of gold nanobipyramids and subsequently overgrowing palladium at the exposed sites of the nanobipyramids. Such anisotropic bimetallic nanostructures exhibit plasmonic photocatalytic activities that are dependent on the position of palladium nanoparticles on the nanobipyramids.

[Full Paper]
Xingzhong Zhu, Henglei Jia, Xiao-Ming Zhu, Si Cheng, Xiaolu Zhuo, Feng Qin, Zhi Yang, Jianfang Wang
Adv. Funct. Mater., April 03, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201700016 Read article

Significance of Nanopatterned and Clustered DLL1 for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Proliferation

Significance of Nanopatterned and Clustered DLL1 for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Proliferation

Biological and physical parameters are known to synergistically affect stem cell behavior. The present paper describes the dual biofunctionalization of nanostructured hydrogels and proves their potential to influence clinically relevant stem cells for regenerative medicine.

[Full Paper]
Anna-Lena Winkler, Joachim von Wulffen, Lisa Rödling, Annamarija Raic, Ines Reinartz, Alexander Schug, Robert Gralla-Koser, Udo Geckle, Alexander Welle, Cornelia Lee-Thedieck
Adv. Funct. Mater., April 03, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201606495 Read article

Quantified Binding Scale of Competing Ligands at the Surface of Gold Nanoparticles: The Role of Entropy and Intermolecular Forces

Quantified Binding Scale of Competing Ligands at the Surface of Gold Nanoparticles: The Role of Entropy and Intermolecular Forces

Quantitative assessment by NMR of the surface composition of gold nanoparticles capped by competing thiol ligands unravels the relationship between the compositions of the ligand shell and the reaction medium. The combination with DFT calculations unveils the role of intermolecular forces and entropy on the stability of mixed ligand shells, toward further control of multifunctionality in hybrid nanoparticles.

[Full Paper]
Claire Goldmann, François Ribot, Leonardo F. Peiretti, Paola Quaino, Frederik Tielens, Clément Sanchez, Corinne Chanéac, David Portehault
Small, March 31, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.201604028 Read article

Inside Back Cover: Immobilization of Redox Enzymes on Nanoporous Gold Electrodes: Applications in Biofuel Cells (ChemPlusChem 4/2017)

Inside Back Cover: Immobilization of Redox Enzymes on Nanoporous Gold Electrodes: Applications in Biofuel Cells (ChemPlusChem 4/2017)

The cover picture shows the use of nanoporous gold electrodes to immobilize glucose dehydrogenase (Glomorella cingulata) and bilirubin oxidase (Myrothecium verrucaria) for use in a biofuel cell. The enzymes can penetrate completely through, are accessible within the porous network, and are stabilized inside the pores. More details can be found in the Full Paper by E. Magner and co-workers on page 553 in Issue 4, 2017 (DOI: 10.1002/cplu.201600455).

[Cover Picture]
Till Siepenkoetter, Urszula Salaj-Kosla, Xinxin Xiao, Peter Ó Conghaile, Marcos Pita, Roland Ludwig, Edmond Magner
ChemPlusChem, March 28, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/cplu.201700111 Read article

Cavitation-Free Continuous-Wave Laser Ablation from a Solid Target to Synthesize Low-Size-Dispersed Gold Nanoparticles

Cavitation‐Free Continuous‐Wave Laser Ablation from a Solid Target to Synthesize Low‐Size‐Dispersed Gold Nanoparticles

Gentle and steady: The continuous wave (CW) laser ablation of Au in water is investigated. In the absence of a secondary ablation mechanism associated with cavitation bubble collapse, the formed nanoparticles present a single population with a variable mean size and a small size dispersion.

[Article]
Alexey O. Kucherik, Yury V. Ryabchikov, Stella V. Kutrovskaya, Ahmed Al-Kattan, Sergei M. Arakelyan, Tatiana E. Itina, Andrei V. Kabashin
ChemPhysChem, March 23, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/cphc.201601419 Read article

Fabrication of Gold Microwires by Drying Gold Nanorods Suspensions

Fabrication of Gold Microwires by Drying Gold Nanorods Suspensions

The ramification pattern of gold nanorods is fabricated by drying its suspension between two glass slides. The aspect ratio of the nanorods and the pinning on the contact line among air, water, and substrate are important. After being baked, this pattern also conducts electricity. The method of patterning is useful for microwiring without the additional need to pattern the wires into specific shapes.

[Communication]
Tomo Kurimura, Yoshiko Takenaka, Satoru Kidoaki, Masatoshi Ichikawa
Adv. Mater. Interfaces, March 21, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/admi.201601125 Read article

Enhancing the Magnetic Heating Capacity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles through Their Postproduction Incorporation into Iron Oxide–Gold Nanocomposites

Enhancing the Magnetic Heating Capacity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles through Their Postproduction Incorporation into Iron Oxide–Gold Nanocomposites

The addition of gold nanoparticles in the postproduction treatment of iron oxide nanoparticles to form a nanocomposite material can improve the magnetic-heating properties of the iron oxide when it is subjected to an alternating magnetic field.

[Full Paper]
Gavin Bell, Lara K. Bogart, Paul Southern, Malini Olivo, Quentin A. Pankhurst, Ivan P. Parkin
Eur. J. Inorg. Chem., March 03, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/ejic.201601432 Read article

Charge Neutralization Strategy: A Novel Synthetic Approach to Fully Cationized Thiolate-Protected Au25(SR+)18 Clusters with Atomic Precision

Charge Neutralization Strategy: A Novel Synthetic Approach to Fully Cationized Thiolate‐Protected Au25(SR+)18 Clusters with Atomic Precision

Many thiolate-protected molecular Au clusters, of different cluster sizes and with varying neutral or anionic thiolate ligands, have been reported over the past two decades. In this paper, a novel, facile and high-yield synthetic approach to produce a new series of thiolate-protected molecular Au clusters is presented.

[Communication]
Yohei Ishida, Yu-Ling Huang, Tetsu Yonezawa, Kunihiro Narita
ChemNanoMat, March 02, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/cnma.201700012 Read article

How Size Determines the Value of Gold: Economic Aspects of Wet Chemical and Laser-Based Metal Colloid Synthesis

How Size Determines the Value of Gold: Economic Aspects of Wet Chemical and Laser‐Based Metal Colloid Synthesis

Bang for your buck: If the gold nanoparticle productivity exceeds a break-even value of 550 mg h−1, laser ablation synthesis is more economic than chemical synthesis. For industrial scale applications, synthesis costs can be significantly reduced by higher laser power for the laser-based method or by higher centrifugation capacity for wet-chemical synthesis.

[Article]
Sandra Jendrzej, Bilal Gökce, Matthias Epple, Stephan Barcikowski
ChemPhysChem, February 27, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/cphc.201601139 Read article

Gold Nano Particle and Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Modified Carbon Paste Electrode for the Ultra Trace Detection of Arsenic (III)

Gold Nano Particle and Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Modified Carbon Paste Electrode for the Ultra Trace Detection of Arsenic (III)

[Full Paper]
Srikant Sahoo, Prasanta Kumar Sahoo, Ashis Kumar Satpati
Electroanalysis, February 16, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/elan.201600676 Read article

Electrochemical Detection of FAM134B Mutations in Oesophageal Cancer Based on DNA-Gold Affinity Interactions

Electrochemical Detection of FAM134B Mutations in Oesophageal Cancer Based on DNA‐Gold Affinity Interactions

[Full Paper]
Md. Hakimul Haque, Md. Nazmul Islam, Farhadul Islam, Vinod Gopalan, Nam-Trung Nguyen, Alfred K. Lam, Muhammad J. A. Shiddiky
Electroanalysis, February 09, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/elan.201700039 Read article

Organic Molecular Layer with High Electrochemical Bistability: Synthesis, Structure, and Properties of a Dynamic Redox System with Lipoate Units for Binding to Au(111)

Organic Molecular Layer with High Electrochemical Bistability: Synthesis, Structure, and Properties of a Dynamic Redox System with Lipoate Units for Binding to Au(111)

Show me your bits! Reversible C−C bond formation/cleavage on gold was induced electrochemically on a layer of acridan-based electron donor 1 that was transformed into acridinium 22+. Due to its high electrochemical bistability, this dynamic redox pair may be useful as a unimolecular memory unit, in which one molecule acts as one bit.

[Communication]
Eisuke Ohta, Hiromitsu Uehara, Ying Han, Kazuhisa Wada, Hidenori Noguchi, Ryo Katoono, Yusuke Ishigaki, Hiroshi Ikeda, Kohei Uosaki, Takanori Suzuki
ChemPlusChem, February 08, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/cplu.201600649 Read article

A Dual-Modal SERS/Fluorescence Gold Nanoparticle Probe for Mitochondrial Imaging

A Dual‐Modal SERS/Fluorescence Gold Nanoparticle Probe for Mitochondrial Imaging

Go for gold! Gold nanoparticles that were functionalised with a thiol rhodamine derivative serve as a multimodal probe for cellular imaging. The normal pH-dependent fluorescence of rhodamine is inversed, with higher emission observed at high pH. The probe was shown to localise in the mitochondria.

[Communication]
Charlotte J. Eling, Thomas W. Price, Addison R. L. Marshall, Francesco Narda Viscomi, Peter Robinson, George Firth, Ali M. Adawi, Jean-Sebastien G. Bouillard, Graeme J. Stasiuk
ChemPlusChem, January 31, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/cplu.201600593 Read article

Immobilization of Redox Enzymes on Nanoporous Gold Electrodes: Applications in Biofuel Cells

Immobilization of Redox Enzymes on Nanoporous Gold Electrodes: Applications in Biofuel Cells

Enzymatic fuel cells: Nanoporous gold (NPG) electrodes with tunable pore size from 5 to 60 nm were prepared and utilized for the immobilization of bilirubin oxidase (BOx) and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) for use in biofuel cells. The devices with NPG-confined enzymes show high power outputs and enhanced long-term operation and storage stability, an improvement associated with the physical confinement of the enzyme within the porous network (see figure).

[Full Paper]
Till Siepenkoetter, Urszula Salaj-Kosla, Xinxin Xiao, Peter Ó Conghaile, Marcos Pita, Roland Ludwig, Edmond Magner
ChemPlusChem, November 25, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1002/cplu.201600455 Read article

Direct Electron Transfer of Cellobiose Dehydrogenase on Positively Charged Polyethyleneimine Gold Nanoparticles

Direct Electron Transfer of Cellobiose Dehydrogenase on Positively Charged Polyethyleneimine Gold Nanoparticles

Direct route: An approach for lactose biosensing is reported. The biosensor is based on the direct electron transfer from cellobiose dehydrogenase from Phanerochaete sordida electrostatically attached onto gold electrodes premodified with polyethyleneimine-capped gold nanoparticles (see figure).

[Full Paper]
Mojtaba Tavahodi, Roberto Ortiz, Christopher Schulz, Ali Ekhtiari, Roland Ludwig, Behzad Haghighi, Lo Gorton
ChemPlusChem, October 26, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1002/cplu.201600453 Read article

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