4_03/2010Cover Picture: Proteomics – Clinical Applications 3/10

HIV is a kick in the head, repeatedly

Einstein was a smart guy. Decades ago, he invented a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) method that is now very useful in tracking the effects of HIV on the human brain and qualifying markers of deterioration. Wow! Even with the virus controlled, brain injury continues increasing in advanced AIDS cases. Ann Ragin et al. sought a non-invasive, quantitative means of evaluating brain deterioration that could be used to validate the reliability of markers derived from a high-throughput screening system. The combination of DTI and magnetic resonance yielded the data. After screening <18 protein candidates, they selected MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant peptide-1, as a robust protein marker of brain injury.

Ragin, A. B. et al., Proteomics Clin. Appl. 2010, 4, 295–303

No stiff upper lip for salivary secretions in rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a killer. Most of us do not know that RA patients have a death rate twice that of unaffected persons. This calls for rapid, accurate, and early diagnoses, and aggressive treatment. A number of markers have been identified in lymphocytes, monocytes, keratinocytes and synovial fluid. Giusti et al. looked at whole saliva (WS) by 2-DE MALDI-TOF/TOF and found virtually all of the previously recognized RA markers but with more reliable statistics. Particularly interesting was the heat-shock protein GRP78/BiP, here found for the first time in whole saliva, which seemed to be specific for RA of the joints, not other types, a good attribute for a future marker.

Giusti, L. et al., Proteomics Clin. Appl. 2010, 4, 315–324.

Out of darkness comes - Glutamine Guy!

Back in the dark ages of my research, the necessity of supplemental glutamine (Gln) in cultured cells was a topic that did not raise much debate. You just tried it and if it helped, you kept on adding it. Now, thirtyodd years later, some sense has been made of its role, which is good, since it is being used therapeutically. Thébault et al. examine more closely the effect of Gln alone and Gln with other antioxidants (zinc, selenium, vitamins C and E, and β-carotene) on the duodenal proteome. Using 2-DE and LC-ESI-MS/MS, they resolve 1500 protein spots, 11 of which are specifically regulated by the antioxidant supplement. They exhibit at least a twofold change. Seven were identified: ACY1 (down), SK1 (up), liver FABP1 (down, two spots), PPARα and -γ (up), RALDH1 (up), RXR (up), and MnSOD (up). Provocative stuff for those who know the code.

Thébault, S. et al., Proteomics Clin. Appl. 2010, 4, 325–336.

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